What was Australia before federation?
Australia became a nation on 1 January 1901 when 6 British colonies—New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia and Tasmania—united to form the Commonwealth of Australia. This process is known as federation.
How was Australia divided up prior to federation?
Australia in the late 19th century consisted of six self-governing British colonies that were subject to the British Parliament. Each colony had its own — often quite distinct — laws, railway gauge, postage stamps and tariffs. … The colonies of New Zealand and Fiji were also part of Federation discussions.
What effect did federation have on Australia?
In January 1901, the Australian colonies joined together in a political federation, setting the stage for the formation of a customs union later that year. As a result, all duties on intra-Australian trade were abolished and a common external tariff was imposed.
What was South Australia called before federation?
Colony of South Australia (1834 – 1901)
In fact, South Australia was called a province rather than a colony, to help distinguish it from other colonies that had transportation in their histories. With Federation on 1 January 1901, it became the State of South Australia.
What was Australia originally called?
In recent times, Australia Day has become increasingly controversial as it marks the start of when the continent’s Indigenous people were gradually dispossessed of their land as white colonization spread across the continent. Australia, once known as New South Wales, was originally planned as a penal colony.
What caused the 1890s depression in Australia?
The 1890s depression in Australia occurred after the land boom bubble of the 1880s burst. Overseas investment dried up, banks failed and unemployment soared. Relief societies were formed in many parts of the country to distribute aid to poverty-stricken families – generally of meat, bread and tea.
Who ruled Australia before 1901?
British settlement of Australia began as a penal colony governed by a captain of the Royal Navy. Until the 1850s, when local forces began to be recruited, British regular troops garrisoned the colonies with little local assistance.
Why did Wa not want to federate?
Western Australia had been reluctant to join the Federation: it did not take part in the 1898 or 1899 Federal Constitutional Referenda held by the other colonies; it was not party to the petition to Queen Victoria asking that the British Parliament enact the draft constitution Bill; and had not yet held a referendum on …
Why were there so many colonies in Australia?
Well you can be pretty sure it was for one of two main reasons – either as a gaol for convicts, or because of the land, to graze sheep or cattle. Three of the states were started as gaols – New South Wales, where the First Fleet arrived; Queensland, which began when Moreton Bay was settled – now called Brisbane.
When and how did Australia become a federation?
After many years of debate and drafting, it was passed by the British Parliament, and given royal assent (approval by the Queen), in July 1900. The passing of the Constitution enabled Australia’s 6 British colonies to become one nation, the Commonwealth of Australia, on 1 January 1901.
What day is Federation Day?
Federation Day – 1 January
In 1901, the six British self-governing colonies – Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia, and Western Australia – united to form the Commonweath of Australia. Unfortunately, this happened on 1 Jan, which is also New Year’s Day.
How does a federation work?
A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central federal government (federalism). … It can be considered the opposite of another system, the unitary state.
What is the oldest town in South Australia?
Gawler is the oldest country town on the Australian mainland in the state of South Australia.
Who named South Australia?
The state is named after the London-founded South Australian Company that, in 1836, set up shop in Kingscote on Kangaroo Island. Adelaide is named after the German-born Queen Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, who was the wife of King William IV.
How many convicts were sent to South Australia?
Between 1788 and 1868 about 160 000 British convicts were sent to Australia. This State Library of South Australia guide will assist you to locate worldwide resources for researching your convict ancestors.