Then, in 1788, the first permanent settlers from Europe arrived in New South Wales. These people brought with them all the infectious diseases com- mon in Europe at that time, including measles, influenza, smallpox, diph- theria, pertussis, typhoid, syphilis, gonorrhoea and tuberculosis (Gandevia 1978; Curson 1985).
What diseases were brought to Australia by the British?
The most immediate consequence of colonisation was a wave of epidemic diseases including smallpox, measles and influenza, which spread ahead of the frontier and annihilated many Indigenous communities.
What diseases did convicts bring to Australia?
Scurvy. The journey from England to Sydney took several months, and conditions on the ship were harsh. Many convicts fell ill during the voyage with diseases such as typhus or scurvy. Convicts who arrived in Sydney in need of medical care were sent to the hospital for treatment.
What happened when European settlers arrived in Australia?
A few days after arrival at Botany Bay the fleet moved to the more suitable Port Jackson where a settlement was established at Sydney Cove on 26 January 1788. This date later became Australia’s national day, Australia Day. The colony was formally proclaimed by Governor Phillip on 7 February 1788 at Sydney.
What disease killed the Aboriginal population?
Disease ravished Aboriginal communities. It is believed that smallpox killed over half the Aboriginal population in these early years, particularly affecting the very young and elderly members of Indigenous communities across the country as it moved beyond the frontier.
Why did the British kill the Aboriginal?
The most common motive for a massacre was reprisal for the killing of settler civilians but at least 51 massacres were in reprisal for the killing or theft of livestock or property.
How many Aboriginal were killed in Australia?
After European settlers arrived in 1788, thousand of aborigines died from diseases; colonists systematically killed many others. At first contact, there were over 250,000 aborigines in Australia. The massacres ended in the 1920 leaving no more than 60,000.
What was the worst disease in the 1800s?
Diseases and epidemics of the 19th century included long-standing epidemic threats such as smallpox, typhus, yellow fever, and scarlet fever. In addition, cholera emerged as an epidemic threat and spread worldwide in six pandemics in the nineteenth century.
How did the convicts get treated?
Convict discipline was harsh. … At remote places such as Norfolk Island, Port Macquarie and Moreton Bay, discipline could be very severe. There they were forced to work from dawn to dusk at backbreaking tasks. If they disobeyed or tried to escape, they were whipped, chained in irons or sometimes executed.
How many convicts died in the First Fleet?
The chief surgeon for the First Fleet, John White, reported a total of 48 deaths and 28 births during the voyage. The deaths during the voyage included one marine, one marine’s wife, one marine’s child, 36 male convicts, four female convicts, and five children of convicts.
Who first settled Australia?
On January 26, 1788, Captain Arthur Phillip guides a fleet of 11 British ships carrying convicts to the colony of New South Wales, effectively founding Australia.
What country immigrated to Australia the most?
About one in every four migrants in Australia was from the United Kingdom. Immigrants from the top five countries of origin – the United Kingdom, New Zealand, China (excluding Hong Kong and Taiwan), Italy, and Vietnam – accounted for 45.1 percent of all of the foreign born in Australia.
Was Australia invaded or settled?
Should we remember January 26 1788 as “Invasion Day”? The colonisation of Australia was an invasion from an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander perspective.
When was the first Aboriginal killed?
1838. Myall Creek massacre – 10 June: 28 people killed at Myall Creek near Inverell, New South Wales. This was the first Aboriginal massacre for which white European and black African settlers were successfully prosecuted.
What did the British do to the Aboriginal?
The English settlers and their descendants expropriated native land and removed the indigenous people by cutting them from their food resources, and engaged in genocidal massacres.
How did the British affect the indigenous peoples of Australia?
British explorers unknowingly exposed Australia’s Indigenous people to many varieties of disease, such as smallpox, tuberculosis, influenza, measles, whooping cough and the common cold. In 1789, a year after the First Fleet arrived, a smallpox outbreak killed many of the Indigenous people that lived in the Sydney area.